The critically acclaimed story of how J Robert Oppenheimer found himself thrust into a race to create the atomic bomb.
Following a critically acclaimed sell-out run in 2014 and 2015 at the Swan Theatre, Stratford-upon-Avon,Tom Morton-Smith's new play Oppenheimer transferred to the Vaudeville Theatre, London.
The story of Oppenheimer
1939: fascism spreads across Europe, Franco marches on Barcelona and two German chemists discover the processes of atomic fission. In Berkeley, California, theoretical physicists recognise the horrendous potential of this new science: a weapon that draws its power from the very building blocks of the universe. The ambitious and charismatic J Robert Oppenheimer finds himself uniquely placed to spearhead the largest scientific undertaking in all of human history.
Determined to cast off his radical past and struggling with tempestuous relationships with his colleagues, wife and mistress, Oppenheimer finds himself thrust into a position of power, racing to create a weapon so devastating that it would bring about an end not just to the Second World War, but to all war.
Directed by Angus Jackson (King Lear, Chichester Festival Theatre and Brooklyn Academy of Music) with John Heffernan taking the role of Oppenheimer, Tom Morton-Smith's new play took us into the heart of the Manhattan Project to reveal the personal cost of making history.
Who was Oppenheimer?
Julius Robert Oppenheimer
J Robert Oppenheimer was an American theoretical physicist who spearheaded the US effort to develop the atomic bomb during the Second World War and is often referred to as 'father of the atomic bomb'.
Born in New York City in 1904 to German Jewish immigrants, Oppenheimer was educated at Harvard University, the University of Cambridge and the University of Göttingen. He began his atomic research in 1925 and, one year later, teamed up with Max Born to develop the Born-Oppenheimer method, a significant contribution to quantum mechanics theory.
Science and politics become blurred
In 1939, prominent physicists Leó Szilárd and Eugene Wigner drafted the Einstein-Szilárd letter which warned of the danger that Germany might develop nuclear bombs and suggested that the United States should initiate its own nuclear program.
The letter, signed by Albert Einstein, was sent to US President Franklin D. Roosevelt. This prompted Roosevelt to take action, and in October 1941, shortly before the United States entered the Second World War, he approved a crash program to develop an atomic bomb.
The Manhattan project and Oppenheimer
In May 1942, Oppenheimer was invited by Chairman of the National Defence Research Committee James B. Conant to take over research on fast neutron calculations and become part of the Manhattan Project.
The first nuclear bomb – the output of the Manhattan Project – was detonated in New Mexico in July 1945. Oppenheimer later remarked that the Trinity Test brought to mind the words from the Bhagavad Gita: 'Now I am become Death, the destroyer of worlds.'
A month later in August 1945 the US detonated nuclear bombs over Hiroshima and three days later over Nagasaki.
The impact of the bomb
Within four months of the bombings, the acute effects killed 90,000 to 166,000 people in Hiroshima and 60,000 to 80,000 in Nagasaki, with approximately half of those deaths occurring on the first day.
In view of the devastation caused by the bomb, Oppenheimer opposed its further development and resigned from his post as director of Los Alamos Laboratory that same year.
Against the nuclear bomb
Oppenheimer went on to chair the General Advisory Committee of the Atomic Energy Commission, which fought against the development of the hydrogen bomb in 1949. As a result, Oppenheimer was accused of being a Communist supporter and, in 1953, was suspended from secret nuclear research and divested of his security clearance by the Atomic Energy Commission.
Return to the mainstream
In 1963, when the political atmosphere had changed significantly in the US, Oppenheimer was given back his security clearance by President Lyndon B. Johnson and awarded the Enrico Fermi Award.
Upon receipt of the award Oppenheimer told Johnson: 'I think it is just possible, Mr. President, that it has taken some charity and some courage for you to make this award today.'
Oppenheimer was nominated for the Nobel Prize for physics three times, in 1945, 1951 and 1967, but never won.
Death and legacy
Robert J Oppenheimer died of throat cancer on 18 February 1967 in New York City. It is believed that the cancer was caused by his habit of chain smoking throughout his life. His memorial service at Princeton University was attended by 600 of his friends and professional peers. His wife buried his ashes at sea close the their home in the Virgin Islands.
Ben Allen - Edward Teller
Ross Armstrong - Haakon Chevalier/Richard Feynman
Daniel Boyd - Joe Weinberg/Tibbets
Vincent Carmichael - Kenneth Nichols
Laura Cubbit - Ruth Tolman/Waitress
Hedydd Dylan - Jackie Oppenheimer
Sandy Foster - Charlotte Serber
William Gaminara - General Leslie Groves
Michael Grady-Hall - Frank Oppenheimer/Soldier 2
Bradley Hall - Klaus Fuchs/Richard Harrison/Soldier 1/Military Policeman
John Heffernan - J Robert Oppenheimer
Jack Holden - Robert Wilson
Oliver Johnstone - Giovanni Rossi Lomanitz
Andrew Langtree - Peer Da Silva
Tom McCall - Hans Bethe
Thomasin Rand - Kitty Puening Harrison
Catherine Steadman - Jean Tatlock
Toby Webster - Luis Alvarez/Doctor/ Military Policeman+
Jamie Wilkes - Bob Serber/Einstein
Fisher Costello-Rose/Barney Fitzpatrick/ Finley Jury - Little Boy
Writer - Tom Morton-Smith
Director - Angus Jackson
Designer - Robert Innes Hopkins
Lighting - Paul Anderson
Music - Grant Olding
Sound - Christopher Shutt
Movement - Scott Ambler