Investigate Character Relationships

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  • Prospero

    Prospero was Duke of Milan until his brother Antonio usurped his position and had Prospero cast out to sea in a small boat with his young daughter Miranda. Prospero and Miranda landed on an island where the only other inhabitants are spirits and a strange creature called Caliban, who he now commands.

    Facts we learn about Prospero at the start of the play:

    • He uses magic to control the spirits of the island.
    • He was the Duke of Milan until his brother Antonio betrayed him, supported by Alonso.
    • While Prospero was Duke of Milan, he became interested in magic.
    • He has lived alone on the island for 12 years, bringing up his daughter Miranda.
    • He has a close relationship with Ariel, one of the spirits of the island.

    Things they say:

    ‘Thy father was the Duke of Milan and / A prince of power’ (Prospero, 1:2)

    Prospero was a powerful man before arriving on the island.

    ‘And these, mine enemies, are now knit up / In their distractions. They now are in my power’ (Prospero, 3:3)

    Power is important to Prospero and he enjoys having power over his enemies.

    Things others say about them:

    ‘I must obey. His art is of such power / It would control my dam’s god Setebos / And make a vassal of him’ (Caliban, 1:2)

    Caliban is scared of Prospero because his magic is even more powerful than anything his mother’s god could do.

    ‘Never till this day / Saw I him touched with anger, so distempered’ (Miranda, 4:1)

    Prospero is usually calm but can become angry.

    ‘this famous Duke of Milan / Of whom so often I have heard renown’ (Ferdinand, 5:1)

    Prospero was thought of as a good duke when he ruled Milan.

  • Miranda

    Miranda is Prospero's daughter and his only child. We are not told anything about her mother. She was cast out to sea with her father when she was three-years-old and knows nothing about the world except what her father has taught her. Prospero hopes she and Ferdinand will be attracted to each other. When they immediately fall in love, he pretends to be angry and makes Ferdinand a slave. Once Ferdinand has proved her deserves Miranda, he blesses their engagement with a magical show.

    Facts we learn about Miranda at the start of the play:

    • She is about fifteen years old.
    • She has grown up on the island.
    • She can’t remember ever seeing any other men besides her father and Caliban, until the shipwreck.

    Things they say:

    ‘O, I have suffered / With those that I saw suffer’ (Miranda, 1:2)

    Miranda doesn’t like to watch people suffer.

    'Tis a villain, sir, / I do not love to look on’ (Miranda, 1:2)

    Miranda does not like being near Caliban.

    ‘What foul play had we that we came from thence? / Or blessed was’t we did?’ (Miranda, 1:2)

    Miranda seems at home on the island, saying it could be a blessing they were stranded there.

    ‘I do not know / One of my sex, no woman’s face remember / Save from my glass, mine own’ (Miranda, 3:1)

    Miranda has never seen another woman.

    Things others say about them:

    ‘But you, O you, / So perfect and so peerless, are created / Of every creature’s best’ (Ferdinand, 3:1)

    Miranda is beautiful, even compared to the women Ferdinand would have known at court in Naples.

    ‘This my rich gift’ (Prospero, 4:1)

    Miranda has a close relationship with her father, who values her.

  • Ariel

    Ariel is the chief spirit of the island and controls the other spirits. Prospero found him imprisoned in a pine tree where he had been left by a witch called Sycorax, who died before Prospero arrived. In return for being freed from the tree, Ariel now serves Prospero and carries out his magical orders. Prospero promises Ariel that if he does everything he is asked to, he will be set free. At the end of the play, when Prospero has achieved everything he wanted with Ariel’s help, he says goodbye to Ariel and sets him free.

    Facts we learn about Ariel at the start of the play:

    • Ariel has the power to create storms.
    • Ariel was imprisoned in a tree by Sycorax until Prospero freed him.
    • No other character in the play can see Ariel apart from Prospero.
    • Ariel is loyal to Prospero but is also keen to have his freedom.

    Things they say:

    ‘I come / to answer thy best pleasure, be’t to fly / To swim, to dive into the fire, to ride / On the curled clouds, to thy strong bidding task / Ariel and all his quality’ (Ariel, 1:2)

    Ariel is willing to obey Prospero and has many skills.

    ‘I have done thee worthy service / Told thee no lies, made no mistakings, served / Without grudge or grumblings.’ (Ariel, 1:2)

    Ariel doesn’t usually complain about serving Prospero.

    Things others say about them:

    ‘I must / Once a month recount what thou hast been / Which thou forget’st’ (Prospero, 1:2)

    Ariel owes Prospero for his freedom but Prospero has to remind him of this every month.

    ‘For thou wast a spirit too delicate / To act her earthy and abhorred commands, / Refusing her grand hests, she did confine thee’ (Prospero, 1:2)

    Ariel disobeyed Sycrorax and was imprisoned for it.

    ‘My industrious servant, Ariel’ (Prospero, 4:1)

    Ariel is hard working.

  • Caliban

    Sycorax, a witch, was abandoned on the island and gave birth to a son, Caliban. When she died, he was left alone on the island with only the invisible spirits for company. When Prospero and Miranda arrive on the island, Caliban lives with them as part of the family but when Prospero catches him about to sexually assault Miranda, he throws Caliban out and treats him as a slave. Caliban wants revenge on Prospero but is afraid of his magical powers. When he meets Stephano, Caliban believes the drunken butler can kill Prospero and become a better master to him. He tries to lead Stephano to kill Prospero but Ariel and Prospero defeat his plans.

    Facts we learn about Caliban at the start of the play:

    • The son of a witch, he was born on the island and lived there alone for a long time.
    • He helped Prospero and Miranda to survive on the island.
    • He hates Prospero for treating him like a slave.
    • He has never tasted alcohol before and thinks Stephano must be a god for owning it.

    Things they say:

    ‘This island's mine by Sycorax my mother / Which thou tak’st from me’ (Caliban, 1:2)

    Caliban should have ruled the island but Prospero took it from him.

    ‘I’ll be wise hereafter / And seek for grace. What a thrice-double ass / Was I to take this drunkard for a god’ (Caliban, 5:1)

    Caliban is quite gullible and believes Stephano is a god. He asks forgiveness for this at the end of the play.

    Things others say about them:

    Abhorred slave / Which any print of goodness wilt not take / being capable of all ill’ (Miranda, 1:2)

    Caliban is hated by Miranda and Prospero.

    ‘A most ridiculous monster to make a wonder of a poor drunkard’ (Trinculo, 2:2)

    Caliban does not look human, but like a ‘monster’.

    ‘A devil, a born devil, on whose nature / Nurture can never stick, on whom my pains / Humanely taken, all, all lost quite lost / And as with age his body uglier grows / So his mind cankers’ (Prospero, 4:1)

    Caliban is seen as naturally bad by Prospero who thinks he grows worse as he gets older.

  • Ferdinand

    Ferdinand is the only son of Alonso, King of Naples. When the ship seems to be breaking up in the tempest, he swims ashore and believes his father drowned. He falls in love with Miranda at first sight but Prospero thinks they have fallen in love too easily. Prospero uses his magical powers to make Ferdinand a slave and forces him to carry logs. Ferdinand puts up with this so long as he can see Miranda. Eventually, Prospero rewards his loyalty by releasing him and agrees that Ferdinand and Miranda can marry.

    Facts we learn about Ferdinand at the start of the play:

    • He swam ashore alone after the shipwreck.
    • He is loyal to his father.
    • He falls in love with Miranda as soon as he sees her and immediately decides to marry her.
    • He has heard good things about Prospero and shows respect towards him when he finds out who he is.

    Things they say:

    ‘Sitting on a bank / Weeping again the King my father’s wreck’ (Ferdinand, 1:2)

    Ferdinand is close to his father.

    ‘The very instant that I saw you did / My heart fly to your service, there resides / To make me slave to it and for your sake / Am I this patient log-man’ (Ferdinand, 3:1)

    Ferdinand falls in love with Miranda instantly and is willing to be her father’s slave.

    Things others say about them:

    ‘This gallant which thou seest / Was in the wreck, and but he’s something stained / With grief, that’s beauty’s canker, thou mightst call him / A goodly person’ (Prospero, 1:2)

    Ferdinand seems a good and gallant person.

    ‘I might call him / A thing divine, for nothing natural / I ever saw so noble’ (Miranda, 1:2)

    Ferdinand is immediately attractive to Miranda.

    ‘There’s nothing ill can dwell in such a temple’ (Miranda, 1:2)

    Ferdinand is good looking.

  • Trinculo

    Trinculo is a jester and serves Alonso, King of Naples. He was washed up alone on the island after the shipwreck. Looking for shelter, he ends up crawling underneath Caliban's cloak with him. His friend Stephano then discovers them and they meet Caliban. Stephano is persuaded to kill Prospero, by Caliban, and Trinculo reluctantly follows along with their plot.

    Facts we learn about Trinculo at the start of the play:

    • He swam ashore after the shipwreck.
    • He is friends with Stephano, Alonso’s butler.
    • He gets drunk on Stephano’s wine.
    • He feels left out when Caliban and Stephano join together.

    Things they say:

    ‘They say there’s but five upon this isle. We are three of them. If the other two be brained like us, the state totters’ (Trinculo, 3:2)

    Trinculo does not have a very high opinion of either his own intelligence or that of Caliban and Stephano.

    Things others say about them:

    ‘Though thou canst swim like a duck, thou art made like a goose’ (Stephano, 2:2)

    Trinculo is unsteady on his feet, like a goose.

    ‘I will not serve him, he’s not valiant’ (Caliban, 3:2)

    Trinculo is not impressive to Caliban, who doesn’t want to serve him.

    ‘Trinculo is reeling ripe’ (Alonso, 5:1)

    Trinculo is also drunk by the end of the play.

  • Stephano

    Stephano is butler to Alonso, King of Naples. He was washed up on the island alone and wanders around drunk until he meets up with his friend Trinculo, who is hiding under a cloak with Caliban. Stephano shares his wine with them and Caliban thinks he is a god. Stephano agrees to kill Prospero, rule the island and become Caliban’s new master. However, Ariel watches them and makes sure they do not cause any real trouble.

    Facts we learn about Stephano at the start of the play:

    • He washes up on the island clinging to a barrel of wine.
    • He shares his wine with Caliban and Trinculo, which makes Caliban want to serve him as his new master.
    • He enjoys the attention Caliban gives him.

    Things they say:

    ‘If I can recover him and keep him tame, and get to Naples with him, he’s a present for any emperor’ (Stephano, 2:2)

    Stephano is greedy and thinks he can make money from selling Caliban.

    ‘Prithee do not turn me about, my stomach is not constant’ (Stephano, 2:2)

    Stephano is already drunk when he meets Trinculo .

    ‘I do begin to have bloody thoughts’ (Stephano, 4:1)

    Stephano is prepared to kill Prospero until he is distracted.

    Things others say about them:

    ‘That’s a brave god and bears celestial liquor. I will kneel to him’ (Caliban, 2:2)

    Stephano uses the drink he has to make Caliban worship him.

    ‘Is not this Stephano, my drunken butler?’ (Alonso, 5:1)

    Stephano is often drunk.

  • Alonso

    Alonso is the King of Naples. He helped Antonio to get rid of Prospero and take his brother’s place as Duke of Milan. He has two children, a daughter called Claribel and a son, Ferdinand. His fleet of ships is returning to Naples from Tunis but they are caught in a huge storm. Travelling with him is his son, his brother and other nobles. They are all washed up on the island after the storm, although Alonso thinks Ferdinand has drowned. When Alonso finally meets Prospero, he apologises and makes him Duke of Milan again. When he is reunited with Ferdinand and finds out about his engagement to Prospero’s daughter Miranda, he is delighted.

    Facts we learn about Alonso at the start of the play:

    • As King of Naples, he has the highest status of the nobles.
    • He helped Antonio to take Prospero’s place.
    • His ship is returning from Tunis where his daughter Claribel married the King of Tunis.
    • He is very upset at loosing of his son Ferdinand, who he thinks has drowned.

    Things they say:

    ‘Old lord, I cannot blame thee / Who am myself attached with weariness / To the dulling of my spirits. Sit down and rest. / Even here will I put off my hope’ (Alonso, 3:2)

    Alonso is determined to find his son and cares for Gonzalo.

    ‘I will stand to and feed / Although my last, no matter since I feel / The best is past’ (Alonso, 3:3)

    Alonso becomes reckless when he thinks he has lost his son.

    Things others say about them:

    ‘The King of Naples, being an enemy / To me inveterate’ (Prospero, 1:2)

    Alonso is Prospero’s long term enemy.

    ‘Sir, you may thank yourself for this great loss / That would not bless our Europe with your daughter / But rather lose her to an African’ (Sebastian, 2:1)

    Alonso’s choices as a ruler are not respected by his brother.

    ‘Here lies your brother / No better than the earth he lies upon / If he were that which now he’s like, that’s dead’ (Antonio, 2:1)

    Alonso’s rule in Naples is not secure.

  • Antonio

    Antonio is Prospero's younger brother. Prospero trusted him to help rule the dukedom of Milan but Antonio used this trust against his brother and secretly plotted with Alonso to overthrow Prospero and have him and Miranda removed from the city. Antonio owes a debt to Alonso for his help and wants Sebastian to become King of Naples instead so that he can be released from that debt. He has very few lines in the last scene so it is not clear how he feels about seeing Prospero again.

    Facts we learn about Antonio at the start of the play:

    • Prospero trusted him to rule Milan while he was studying his magic books.
    • Antonio has to give regular payments and support to Naples in return for Alonso's help in overthrowing Prospero.
    • Antonio would prefer Sebastian to be King of Naples.

    Things they say:

    ‘O that you bore / The mind that I do, what a sleep were this / For your advancement’ (Antonio, 2:1)

    Antonio is opportunistic.

    ‘I am right glad that he’s so out of hope’ (Antonio, 3:2)

    Antonio has no sympathy, even for Alonso who believes his son is dead.

    Things others say about them:

    ‘in my false brother / Awaked an evil nature, and my trust / Like a good parent, did beget of him / A falsehood in its contrary as great / As my trust was’ (Prospero, 1:2)

    Antonio betrayed Prospero, even though Prospero thinks he treated him well.

    ‘Thy case, dear friend / Shall be my precedent: as thou got’st Milan / I’ll come by Naples’ (Sebastian, 2:1)

    Antonio is trusted by Sebastian and uses his trust to persuade him to kill his brother.

    ‘You brother mine that entertained ambition / Expelled remorse and nature.’ (Prospero, 5:1)

    Antonio is motivated by personal ambition, according to Prospero.

  • Gonzalo

    Gonzalo is chief advisor to Alonso, King of Naples. He is remembered by Prospero for his kindness in making sure that supplies, clothing and books were put aboard the boat when Prospero and Miranda were cast out to sea. He tries to keep Alonso positive as they search the island for Ferdinand and is aware that Sebastian and Antonio make fun of him.

    Facts we learn about Gonzalo at the start of the play:

    • When Prospero was cast out to sea, Gonzalo helped him by giving him food and drink as well as rich clothing and important magic books from his library.
    • He is loyal to Alonso and tries to keep his spirits up as they search the island for Ferdinand.
    • He is delighted that Ferdinand and Miranda will become king and queen.

    Things they say:

    ‘You have cause / So have we all, of joy, for our escape / Is much beyond our loss’ (Gonzalo, 2:1)

    Gonzalo is positive and tries to see the good in their situation.

    ‘I can go no further sir / My old bones aches’ (Gonzalo, 3:2)

    Gonzalo is old and struggles to walk around the island.

    Things others say about them:

    ‘A noble Neapolitan, Gonzalo / Out of his charity, who being then appointed / Master of this design, did give us, with / Rich garments, linens, stuffs, and necessaries / Which since have steaded much’ (Prospero, 1:2)

    Gonzalo helped Prospero and Miranda to escape Milan and gave them provisions.

    ‘Look, he’s winding up the watch of his wit’ (Sebastian, 2:1)

    Gonzalo is not quick witted, something Sebastian finds humorous.

    ‘O good Gonzalo / My true preserver and a loyal sir / To him thou followest’ (Prospero, 5:1)

    Gonzalo is loyal, both to Prospero and to Alonso.

Explore their relationships

Prospero

  • Prospero - Miranda

    Prospero and Miranda have a strong relationship at the beginning of the play. They have been alone on the island together for 12 years.

    ‘my dearest father’ (Miranda, 1:2)
    ‘I have done nothing but in care of thee’ (Prospero, 1:2)

    In Act 1 Scene 2, when Miranda first meets Ferdinand, her loyalty to her father is tested. She is attracted to Ferdinand as soon as she sees him and is then upset with her father for being mean to Ferdinand.

    ‘O dear father / Make not too rash a trial of him’ (Miranda, 1:2)

    In Act 3, Miranda finds her loyalty divided between her father and Ferdinand, the man she has promised to marry. She visits Ferdinand and tells him her name even though her father told her not to.

    ‘Miranda – O my father / I have broke your hest to say so’ (Miranda, 3:1)

    In Act 4, Prospero reveals that he is actually really pleased that Miranda and Ferdinand have fallen in love. Ferdinand will be his son-in-law. Prospero agrees to their marriage.

    ‘Here afore heaven / I ratify this my rich gift’ (Prospero, 4:1)

    In Act 5, Prospero has to acknowledge that his daughter has grown up and moved on. He has lost his daughter to Ferdinand but he and Alonso share their delight that their children will marry and will one day rule over Milan and Naples together.

    ‘For I / Have lost a daughter… / In this last tempest’ (Prospero, 5:1)

  • Prospero - Antonio

    When Prospero was Duke of Milan, his brother supported him and helped to rule the city state.

    ‘he whom next thyself / Of all the world I loved and to him put / The manage of my state’ (Prospero, 1:2)

    Antonio betrayed Prospero by plotting with Alonso to throw him out of Milan and take his place as Duke.

    ‘he needs will be / Absolute Milan’ (Prospero, 1:2)

    In Act 1, Prospero creates a storm to wreck Alonso and Antonio's ship. He hopes he can repair his fortunes and make his enemies sorry for how they treated him.

    ‘By accident most strange, bountiful Fortune, / Now my dear lady, hath mine enemies / Brought to this shore’ (Prospero, 1:2)

    In Act 3 Scene 3, Prospero has Ariel appear as a harpy and tell Antonio, Alonso and Sebastian that they are being punished for their ‘foul deed’. Antonio then acts strangely and tries to fight invisible demons and Prospero seems happy they are under his control.

    ‘All three of them are desperate, their great guilt / Like poison given to work a great time after / Now ‘gins to bit the spirits’ (Prospero, 3:3)
    ‘They are now in my power’ (Prospero, 3:3)

    In Act 5, Prospero forgives Antonio for everything he has done. Antonio has no lines expressing how he feels about seeing Prospero again.

    ‘I do forgive thee / Unnatural though thou art’ (Prospero, 5:1)

  • Prospero - Ariel

    In Act 1 Scene 2, it seems that Prospero and Ariel have a very close relationship. While it is clear that Prospero values Ariel, he also holds power over him. Ariel says

    ‘All hail, great master’ and ‘I come / To answer thy best pleasure’ (Ariel, 1:2)

    Prospero calls Ariel

    ’My brave spirit’ (Prospero, 1:2)

    Prospero first found Ariel imprisoned in a tree and freed him. When Ariel questions him in Act 1, Prospero threatens to imprison him in another tree if he does not do what he is told.

    ‘If thou more murmur’st, I will rend an oak / And peg thee in his knotty entrails’ (Prospero, 1:2)

    In Act 4, Ariel’s relationship with Prospero seems quite close. When Prospero calls him, ‘Come with a thought’, Ariel says, ‘Thy thoughts I cleave to. What’s thy pleasure?’ (4:1) but Ariel does seeks approval from Prospero.

    ‘Do you love me, master?’ (Ariel, 4:1)

    At the beginning of Act 5, Prospero asks Ariel’s opinion when he is considering what to do with his enemies. This may suggest a more equal moment in their relationship.

    ‘Dost thou think so, spirit? (Prospero, 5:1)

    At the end of the play, Prospero sets Ariel free. His words are quite affectionate as he gives Ariel his last instruction.

    ‘My Ariel, chick, / That is thy charge. Then to the elements / Be free, and fare thee well’ (Prospero, 5:1)

  • Prospero - Caliban

    When Prospero first landed on the island, Prospero and Caliban helped each other. Caliban helped him to find food, water, shelter and fuel and Prospero was grateful.

    ‘When thou cam’st first, / Thou strok’st me and made much of me’ (Caliban, 1:2)
    ‘I lodged thee in mine own cell’ (Prospero, 1:2)

    Prospero and Caliban’s relationship broke down when Caliban tried to ‘violate the honour’ of Miranda (1:2). Then Prospero used his powers to throw Caliban out of their home and turn him into a slave.

    Caliban hates Prospero and feels Prospero has used his power to exploit him and steal his island. Caliban says he must obey Prospero because ‘His art is of such power’ (1:2).

    ‘This island’s mine by Sycorax my mother / Which thou tak’st from me’ (Caliban, 1:2)

    Caliban thinks Stephano can become his new master and set him free from Prospero’s power. He tells Stephano he will lead him to where Prospero sleeps.

    ‘Where thou mayst knock a nail into his head’ (Caliban, 3:2)

    In Act 5, Prospero calls Caliban ‘mine’. This might mean that Caliban is a slave he owns, or he might be recognising that he has had a role to play in how Caliban behaves.

    ‘This thing of darkness I /Acknowledge mine’ (Prospero, 5:1)

  • Prospero - Gonzalo

Miranda

  • Miranda - Prospero

    Prospero and Miranda have a strong relationship at the beginning of the play. They have been alone on the island together for 12 years.

    ‘my dearest father’ (Miranda, 1:2)
    ‘I have done nothing but in care of thee’ (Prospero, 1:2)

    In Act 1 Scene 2, when Miranda first meets Ferdinand, her loyalty to her father is tested. She is attracted to Ferdinand as soon as she sees him and is then upset with her father for being mean to Ferdinand.

    ‘O dear father / Make not too rash a trial of him’ (Miranda, 1:2)

    In Act 3, Miranda finds her loyalty divided between her father and Ferdinand, the man she has promised to marry. She visits Ferdinand and tells him her name even though her father told her not to.

    ‘Miranda – O my father / I have broke your hest to say so’ (Miranda, 3:1)

    In Act 4, Prospero reveals that he is actually really pleased that Miranda and Ferdinand have fallen in love. Ferdinand will be his son-in-law. Prospero agrees to their marriage.

    ‘Here afore heaven / I ratify this my rich gift’ (Prospero, 4:1)

    In Act 5, Prospero has to acknowledge that his daughter has grown up and moved on. He has lost his daughter to Ferdinand but he and Alonso share their delight that their children will marry and will one day rule over Milan and Naples together.

    ‘For I / Have lost a daughter… / In this last tempest’ (Prospero, 5:1)

  • Miranda - Caliban

  • Miranda - Ferdinand

Ariel

  • Ariel - Prospero

    In Act 1 Scene 2, it seems that Prospero and Ariel have a very close relationship. While it is clear that Prospero values Ariel, he also holds power over him. Ariel says

    ‘All hail, great master’ and ‘I come / To answer thy best pleasure’ (Ariel, 1:2)

    Prospero calls Ariel

    ’My brave spirit’ (Prospero, 1:2)

    Prospero first found Ariel imprisoned in a tree and freed him. When Ariel questions him in Act 1, Prospero threatens to imprison him in another tree if he does not do what he is told.

    ‘If thou more murmur’st, I will rend an oak / And peg thee in his knotty entrails’ (Prospero, 1:2)

    In Act 4, Ariel’s relationship with Prospero seems quite close. When Prospero calls him, ‘Come with a thought’, Ariel says, ‘Thy thoughts I cleave to. What’s thy pleasure?’ (4:1) but Ariel does seeks approval from Prospero.

    ‘Do you love me, master?’ (Ariel, 4:1)

    At the beginning of Act 5, Prospero asks Ariel’s opinion when he is considering what to do with his enemies. This may suggest a more equal moment in their relationship.

    ‘Dost thou think so, spirit? (Prospero, 5:1)

    At the end of the play, Prospero sets Ariel free. His words are quite affectionate as he gives Ariel his last instruction.

    ‘My Ariel, chick, / That is thy charge. Then to the elements / Be free, and fare thee well’ (Prospero, 5:1)

Caliban

  • Caliban - Prospero

    When Prospero first landed on the island, Prospero and Caliban helped each other. Caliban helped him to find food, water, shelter and fuel and Prospero was grateful.

    ‘When thou cam’st first, / Thou strok’st me and made much of me’ (Caliban, 1:2)
    ‘I lodged thee in mine own cell’ (Prospero, 1:2)

    Prospero and Caliban’s relationship broke down when Caliban tried to ‘violate the honour’ of Miranda (1:2). Then Prospero used his powers to throw Caliban out of their home and turn him into a slave.

    Caliban hates Prospero and feels Prospero has used his power to exploit him and steal his island. Caliban says he must obey Prospero because ‘His art is of such power’ (1:2).

    ‘This island’s mine by Sycorax my mother / Which thou tak’st from me’ (Caliban, 1:2)

    Caliban thinks Stephano can become his new master and set him free from Prospero’s power. He tells Stephano he will lead him to where Prospero sleeps.

    ‘Where thou mayst knock a nail into his head’ (Caliban, 3:2)

    In Act 5, Prospero calls Caliban ‘mine’. This might mean that Caliban is a slave he owns, or he might be recognising that he has had a role to play in how Caliban behaves.

    ‘This thing of darkness I /Acknowledge mine’ (Prospero, 5:1)

  • Caliban - Stephano

  • Caliban - Miranda

Ferdinand

  • Ferdinand - Alonso

    Alonso and his son Ferdinand are together on the ship in Act 1 Scene 1, returning from seeing Ferdinand’s sister Claribel get married in Tunis. They are together during the storm.

    ’The King and Prince are at prayers’ (Gonzalo, 1:1)

    In Act 1 Scene 2, Ferdinand weeps because he thinks his father has drowned in the shipwreck. Alonso is also very upset because he believes his son has drowned.

    ‘Sitting on a bank, / Weeping again the King my father’s wreck’ (Ferdinand, 1:2)
    ‘O thou mine heir / Of Naples and of Milan, what strange fish / Hath made his meal on thee?’ (Alonso, 2:1)

    As Ferdinand falls more in love with Miranda in Act 3, he thinks less about his father. He sadly accepts that his father is dead and looks forward to his life with Miranda.

    ‘I am, in my condition. / A prince, Miranda; I do think a king, / I would not so’ (Ferdinand, 3:1)

    In Act 5, Ferdinand and Alonso are both delighted to be reunited and to discover that the other is still alive.

    Ferdinand: ‘Though the seas threaten, they are merciful. / I have cursed them without cause.’
    Alonso: ‘Now all the blessings / Of a glad father compass thee about’ (5:1)

  • Ferdinand - Miranda

Trinculo

  • Trinculo - Stephano

    Stephano and Trinculo seem to be good friends and are very pleased to see each other when they are both washed up on the island after the shipwreck.

    ‘I am Trinculo, be not afeared, thy good friend Trinculo’ (Trinculo, 2:2)

    When Caliban begins to worship Stephano, Trinculo thinks it’s ridiculous. Stephano defends Caliban and we see that Stephano has power over Trinculo because he threatens to beat him.

    ‘Interrupt the monster one word further and by this hand…’ (Stephano, 3:2)

    In Act 4, Stephano and Trinculo are friends again but Stephano still has more power, telling Trinculo what to do.

    ‘Put off that gown, Trinculo. By this hand, I’ll have that gown’ (Stephano, 4:1)

    In Act 5, Stephano and Trinculo are reunited with the nobles and are back in their positions as servants.

Stephano

  • Stephano - Trinculo

    Stephano and Trinculo seem to be good friends and are very pleased to see each other when they are both washed up on the island after the shipwreck.

    ‘I am Trinculo, be not afeared, thy good friend Trinculo’ (Trinculo, 2:2)

    When Caliban begins to worship Stephano, Trinculo thinks it’s ridiculous. Stephano defends Caliban and we see that Stephano has power over Trinculo because he threatens to beat him.

    ‘Interrupt the monster one word further and by this hand…’ (Stephano, 3:2)

    In Act 4, Stephano and Trinculo are friends again but Stephano still has more power, telling Trinculo what to do.

    ‘Put off that gown, Trinculo. By this hand, I’ll have that gown’ (Stephano, 4:1)

    In Act 5, Stephano and Trinculo are reunited with the nobles and are back in their positions as servants.

  • Stephano - Caliban

Alonso

  • Alonso - Ferdinand

    Alonso and his son Ferdinand are together on the ship in Act 1 Scene 1, returning from seeing Ferdinand’s sister Claribel get married in Tunis. They are together during the storm.

    ’The King and Prince are at prayers’ (Gonzalo, 1:1)

    In Act 1 Scene 2, Ferdinand weeps because he thinks his father has drowned in the shipwreck. Alonso is also very upset because he believes his son has drowned.

    ‘Sitting on a bank, / Weeping again the King my father’s wreck’ (Ferdinand, 1:2)
    ‘O thou mine heir / Of Naples and of Milan, what strange fish / Hath made his meal on thee?’ (Alonso, 2:1)

    As Ferdinand falls more in love with Miranda in Act 3, he thinks less about his father. He sadly accepts that his father is dead and looks forward to his life with Miranda.

    ‘I am, in my condition. / A prince, Miranda; I do think a king, / I would not so’ (Ferdinand, 3:1)

    In Act 5, Ferdinand and Alonso are both delighted to be reunited and to discover that the other is still alive.

    Ferdinand: ‘Though the seas threaten, they are merciful. / I have cursed them without cause.’
    Alonso: ‘Now all the blessings / Of a glad father compass thee about’ (5:1)

  • Alonso - Antonio

    In Act 1, Prospero tells Miranda that Alonso helped Antonio to steal the dukedom in return for an ‘annual tribute’ and ‘homage’ (1:2). This means Antonio has to give money and service to Alonso, so Alonso has a lot of power over Antonio.

    In Act 2, Antonio tries to take power from Alonso by killing him. He persuades Sebastian that if they kill Alonso, Sebastian can be king instead and free Antonio from paying money to Alonso. Sebastian agrees.

    ‘Draw thy sword – one stroke / Shall free thee from the tribute which thou payest / And I the king shall love thee’ (Antonio, 2:1)

    In Act 5, Alonso pays no attention to Antonio and uses his power to give Prospero back the dukedom of Milan. Antonio has no lines to express how he might feel about this.

    ‘Thy dukedom I resign, and do entreat / Thou pardon me my wrongs’ (Alonso, 5:1)

  • Alonso - Gonzalo

Antonio

  • Antonio - Prospero

    When Prospero was Duke of Milan, his brother supported him and helped to rule the city state.

    ‘he whom next thyself / Of all the world I loved and to him put / The manage of my state’ (Prospero, 1:2)

    Antonio betrayed Prospero by plotting with Alonso to throw him out of Milan and take his place as Duke.

    ‘he needs will be / Absolute Milan’ (Prospero, 1:2)

    In Act 1, Prospero creates a storm to wreck Alonso and Antonio's ship. He hopes he can repair his fortunes and make his enemies sorry for how they treated him.

    ‘By accident most strange, bountiful Fortune, / Now my dear lady, hath mine enemies / Brought to this shore’ (Prospero, 1:2)

    In Act 3 Scene 3, Prospero has Ariel appear as a harpy and tell Antonio, Alonso and Sebastian that they are being punished for their ‘foul deed’. Antonio then acts strangely and tries to fight invisible demons and Prospero seems happy they are under his control.

    ‘All three of them are desperate, their great guilt / Like poison given to work a great time after / Now ‘gins to bit the spirits’ (Prospero, 3:3)
    ‘They are now in my power’ (Prospero, 3:3)

    In Act 5, Prospero forgives Antonio for everything he has done. Antonio has no lines expressing how he feels about seeing Prospero again.

    ‘I do forgive thee / Unnatural though thou art’ (Prospero, 5:1)

  • Antonio - Alonso

    In Act 1, Prospero tells Miranda that Alonso helped Antonio to steal the dukedom in return for an ‘annual tribute’ and ‘homage’ (1:2). This means Antonio has to give money and service to Alonso, so Alonso has a lot of power over Antonio.

    In Act 2, Antonio tries to take power from Alonso by killing him. He persuades Sebastian that if they kill Alonso, Sebastian can be king instead and free Antonio from paying money to Alonso. Sebastian agrees.

    ‘Draw thy sword – one stroke / Shall free thee from the tribute which thou payest / And I the king shall love thee’ (Antonio, 2:1)

    In Act 5, Alonso pays no attention to Antonio and uses his power to give Prospero back the dukedom of Milan. Antonio has no lines to express how he might feel about this.

    ‘Thy dukedom I resign, and do entreat / Thou pardon me my wrongs’ (Alonso, 5:1)

  • Antonio - Gonzalo

Gonzalo

  • Gonzalo - Alonso

  • Gonzalo - Antonio

  • Gonzalo - Prospero

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